@#$%! : variance annotations in Scala’s unsound parameterized types

by Sebastian Benthall

[error] /home/sb/ischool/cs294/hw3/src/main/scala/TestScript.scala:32: type mismatch;
[error] found : Array[wikilearn.TestScript.parser.Page]
[error] required: Array[wikilearn.WikiParser#Page]
[error] Note: wikilearn.TestScript.parser.Page <: wikilearn.WikiParser#Page, but class Array is invariant in type T.
[error] You may wish to investigate a wildcard type such as `_ <: wikilearn.WikiParser#Page`. (SLS 3.2.10)

wtf, Scala.  You know exactly what I’m trying to do here.

EDIT: I sent a link to the above post to David Winslow. He responded with a crystal clear explanation that was so great I asked him if I could include it here. This is it, below:

It’s a feature, not a bug :) This is actually the specific issue that Dart had in mind when they put this note in the language spec:

The type system is unsound, due to the covariance of generic types. This is a deliberate choice (and undoubtedly controversial). Experience has shown that sound type rules for generics fly in the face of programmer intuition. It is easy for tools to provide a sound type analysis if they choose, which may be useful for tasks like refactoring.

Which of course caused some hubbub among the static typing crowd.

The whole issue comes down to the variance annotations of type parameters Variance influences how type parameters relate to the subtyping relationships of parameterized types:

Given types A and B, A is a supertype of B
trait Invariant[T] means there is no subtype relationship between Invariant[A] and invariant[B]. (Either could be used as an Invariant[_] though)
trait Covariant[+T] means Covariant[A] is a supertype of Covariant[B]
trait Contravariant[-T] means Contravariant[A] is a subtype of Contravariant[B].

The basic rule of thumb is that if you produce values of type T, you can be covariant in T, and if you consume values of type U, you can be contravariant in type U. For example, Function1 has two type parameters, the parameter type A and the result type T. it is contravariant in A and covariant in T. An (Any => String) can be used where a (String => Any) is expected, but not the other way around.

So, what about the type parameter for Array[T]? Among other operations, Arrays provide:

class Array[T] {
  def apply(i: Int): T // "producing" a T
  def update(i: Int, t: T): Unit // "consuming" a T

When the type parameter appears in contravariant and covariant positions the only option is to make it invariant.

Now, it’s interesting to note that in the Java language Arrays are treated as if they are covariant. This means that you can write a Java program that doesn’t use casts, passes the typechecker, and generates a type error at runtime; the body of main() would look like:

String[] strings = new String[1];
Object[] objects = strings;
objects[0] = Integer.valueOf(0); // the runtime error occurs at this step, but even if it didn't: 
System.out.println(strings[0]); // what happens here?

Anyway, the upshot is that immutable collections only use their types in covariant positions (you can get values out, but never insert) so they are much handier. Does your code work better if you replace your usage of Array with Vector? Alternatively, you can always provide the type parameter when you construct your array. Array(“”) is an Array[String], but Array[AnyRef](“”) is an Array[AnyRef].